Programmable Layer 1 PHY

Multi-G xApp & Programmable Layer 1 PHY

Cohere’s Universal Spectrum Multiplier (USM) software is a means of enabling spatial multiplexing MU-MIMO in both FDD and TDD spectrum for 4G, 5G, and future waveforms. The USM xApp, on a near real time RIC, performs the channel calculations necessary to enable users on the same spectrum to spatially multiplex the cellular sector. Multi-G is an extension of the USM concepts that create a Programmable Layer 1 PHY that is sharable by multiple DUs at a Split 6 boundary and drives a common Split 7.2a multi-waveform RU. A Cohere value added version of Intel FlexRAN is at the core of the Programmable Layer 1 PHY and it can exploit the latest Intel 4th Gen Xeon processors that have vRAN Boost (FEC acceleration FPGA array) incorporated within the Xeon.

The Multi-G xApp leverages the pioneering work in Delay-Doppler to enable robust channel estimation and accurate channel prediction into the future. It leverages geometric reciprocity and reduces computation complexity through concise channel representation. Additionally, the Multi-G software takes advantage of existing UE feedback for channel measurement and delivers robust waveform scheduling and co-existence for mobile networks in both FDD and TDD with Spatial Multiplexing for any generation network. 

Cohere’s software-based solution offers significant MU-MIMO benefits with no changes to existing handsets, radios and antennas. Additionally, the Multi-G software works in all available spectrum and, as an additional benefit, enables true 4G and 5G coexistence via a vendor neutral approach to Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) with Cohere Spatial Multiplexing. Where DSS shares an OFDM frame in the cross-DU scheduling process, Multi-G affords full access to both waveforms’ OFDM frames PRBs and Control resources by pushing the multiplexing process down to MU-MIMO beamforming in the Programmable Layer 1 PHY. This is a breakthrough that does not incur the “DSS tax” and offers the highest performance available when sharing spectrum.   

 The Delay-Doppler channel representation is predictable into the future given that its geometric nature is slow changing. This allows disaggregation of functions which enables Cohere’s Multi-G xApp to reside in the Edge Cloud and creates the foundation for improving cell edge performance via intercell coordination (CoMP).

The Future

Since 4G and 5G can be packaged in Multi-G, any G can be packaged in the future, leading to a faster pace of innovation.  The road to 6G doesn’t need to be another monolithic 10-year process, stretching from study to discussion, and compromise, to standardization and then to implementation. Applications that arise can quickly be defined, and then wireless solutions can be built and hosted by a common multi-generational (Multi-G) platform. In this marketplace of continuous innovation, networks don’t need to be decommissioned and then repurposed as technology evolves. Rather, all networks will be Multi-G networks and continuously evolve in software, with occasional hardware upgrades when price/performance warrants. This will lead to the most efficient use of spectrum with little or no stranded spectrum that requires refarming.

Multi-G Video

Multi-G Press Release

OTFS Resources

Video Library


Orthogonal Time Frequency Space (OTFS)
is the breakthrough waveform pioneered by Cohere.
It is the leading candidate to be the 6G waveform
and not only solves for some the limits in the 4G/5G
waveform, but also features the
channel model. This channel model’s characteristics allow it to greatly increase spectral efficiency and is the foundation of the Universal Spectrum Multiplier for 4G and 5G.


Universal Spectrum Multiplier (USM) is an xApp that implements the Delay Doppler channel model from OTFS system. The USM enables 4G and 5G base stations to increase their spectral capacity up to 2X over the traditional time-frequency channel model.


Dynamic Network Alignment – Zero Touch automatic system calibration to enable and maintain effective beamforming.

rApp/Diagnostic Tool

The Delay-Doppler model gives operators an MRI level of visibility into the RF channel. New Visibility interface enables access to channel information and the rApp is a foundation for creation and activation of system policies.

MWC 2023 Keynote

MWC 2023 Keynote, Tuesday February 28th. Jim Taiclet, chairman, president, and CEO of Lockheed Martin and Ray Dolan, chairman and CEO of Cohere Technologies, discuss how advanced commercial technology companies and global security and aerospace companies can collaborate to rapidly adapt 5G, 6G and NextG capabilities to enhance our collective security at a hypersonic pace of innovation.

MWC 2023 Keynote Intro

Intro video for MWC 2023 Keynote, Tuesday February 28th. Jim Taiclet, chairman, president, and CEO of Lockheed Martin and Ray Dolan, chairman and CEO of Cohere Technologies.

Multi-G and Intel FlexRAN

The multi-generational (Multi-G) initiative is an industry collaboration developing the industry’s first framework for a multi-generational, software-based Open RAN architecture. The Multi-G initiative is defining frameworks, interfaces, interoperability testing, and evaluation criteria that provide the interfaces to support full coexistence of 4G, 5G, and future waveforms. This effort will help drive higher performance and connectivity across satellite, private and ad-hoc networks, and autonomous vehicles, increasing new service and revenue opportunities for telecommunications and mobile operators.

The new Multi-G framework disaggregates RAN intelligence and scheduling functions, enabling future code releases of Intel’s FlexRAN reference architecture to support higher capacity, software-defined deployments for 4G, 5G and next generation wireless waveforms and standards. The Multi-G system is intended as a Programmable Layer 1 PHY to be plugged into compliant O-RAN DUs and a companion xApp. Other integration options are also available.

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